The Local Self-governing Body can eliminate waste generated by abattoirs and poultry stalls completely. This can be an income generating proponent as well. Pappinisseri panchayat in Kerala has set a model, writes Dr. P. V Mohanan, former Managing Director, Meat products of India and currently, expert committee member, Suchitwa Mission, Government of Kerala, who helped making Kannur a poultrywaste free district.
There are hardly any chicken stalls in the state with their own waste management systems. Scientific disposal of such waste is quite expensive and is the reason why they cannot have their own waste management system. Presently the stall owners pay `8 per kg to have the waste dumped into rivers, streams, nallahs, roads etc. There are groups of people belonging to other states engaged in this activity.
Chicken stalls without waste management system will not be issued license as per the new food safety standard act. Hotels are not permitted to buy chicken meat from unlicensed stalls. In such a condition, thousands of chicken stalls will have to shut their shops. To avoid this, centralised poultry waste management system is the only solution. Two dry rendering plants for every district will be a proper solution.
A 2-kg chicken when slaughtered produces waste as below:
Blood: 3.5% (70 gms), head, feet and intestine: 15.8 (316 gms), feathers 12% (240gms), Total: 31.3% (626 gms). A 2-kg chicken produces 626 gms of waste when slaughtered. A total of 50 to 1000 chicken are slaughtered daily in the chicken stalls in Kerala. This amounts to waste ranging from 31 kg to 625 every day. Each panchayat in Kerala has an average of 15 chicken stalls and the waste produced accounts to nearly 10 tonnes. Eight to ten panchayats can get together and install chicken waste management plants with a capacity of 10 tonnes per day.
Waste management method
In dry rendering method, the waste is pressure cooked under 1600 C for five to six hours and then pulverised. The process dehydrates and homogenizes the waste. A rendering plant has the following equipment.
• Waste handling equipment
• Vacuum producing unit
• Steam generating unit
• Condensing system
• Srubber and chiller
The waste including the feathers undergoes process of hydrolysis by which it is cooked and broken down. Being processed under high pressure and at high temperature renders the waste free of any microbes. Cyclone separator, condenser, scrubber, ETP (Effluent treatment plant), Bio filter and chimney ensure that there is no environmental pollution.
Waste collected from the source must reach the processing plant in six hours. Waste if gets rotten reduces the quality of the processed product and also generates foul smell. The processing of a batch takes about five to six hours and three such batches can be processed per day.
The product of chicken waste processing is called meat meal. It contains 60% proteins, 20% fat and 6% moisture. In addition, it contains a good amount of calcium and phosphorus in a good amount. This can be used as a good organic fertiliser. Absence of any bad odour is a special feature. Meat meal can be used in the production of dog feed, cat feed and fish feed. Meat meal is also added to pig feed and chicken feed. One kilogram of chicken waste yields about 300 gm of meat meal.
Rendering plants are a boon for panchayats encouraging organic farming. Moreover, our roads, waysides, rivers and streams will become pollution free.
One kilogram of meat meal fetches `15 to 20 based on the protein content. Companies manufacturing dog feed,fish feed are the main buyers. Plants with capacities of 1000, 2000, 3500, 5000 kg are in operation. Three rendering shifts can be run per day. Based on these facts, a plant capacity can be decided. Installing a 3.5 tonne-batch capacity plant will cost approximately `2Cr. For setting up a proposed plant, the District Industries Centre gives a subsidy of 20% limited to `30 lakhs.
Being an industry, the permissions for building, fire equipment and boiler installation are needed. Permission from the Pollution Control Board is also necessary. A shed measuring 30 metres by 15 metres is sufficient for installing the machinery. The road leading to the unit has to be four metres wide.
Rendering plants can be set up with the cooperation of block panchayats also. Municipal and panchayat establishments can spend 10% for waste management. Private investors can get financial aid from District Industries Centre. Banks loans may also be arranged. Private investors will find the project profitable even if they start it in their own capacity. Panchayats granting license for chicken stalls should make it compulsory in the agreement that the stall will send the waste to the nearest waste processing plant.
The problem of chicken waste pollution is felt most severely in the Valapattanam river and its banks and along the national highway. Disposal of chicken waste from the Valapattanam bridge till the Pappinisseri National Highway is a common sight. The problem continues despite the appointment of guard. It is under these circumstance that Pappinisseri panchayat came forward with the idea of setting up a rendering plant. Panchayat owned 70 cents land and building has been given to an Overseas Malayalee group “Clean Kannur Ventures”. The plant was established with technical support from centre for farming and food processing, Kannur in getting the necessary licenses. A `60 lakhs loan was obtained from the Kannur branch. A plant costing `2.5Cr became operational in eight months.