Almost all fibres can be identified by appropriate tests. However, it is not possible for the launderer to apply all the methods. Again identifying and removing stains from textiles are the most difficult tasks in a laundry.
Three criteria for identifying and classifying the most commonly known types of stains are type of edge, feel and colour.
Type of Edge
We distinguish between strong, clearly defined edges of the stains and less clearly defined stains area, which merge with the fabric. The type of edge is typical in case of the following stains:
Blood stains, Starch stains, White of egg stains, Varnish, Oil paints and Glue
All stains cannot be recognized by the appearance of the edge.
- Here we distinguish between hard and soft stains.
- Hard stains are caused by Varnish, oil paints and glues.
Stains, which are less hard but can be described as stiff, are stains containing albumin. When the stain containing albumin is rubbed against a hard object (finger nails) it pulverises and thereby becomes lighter and sometimes vanishes altogether.
Yellow/brown stains: rust, coffee, tea, tannin, tobacco, juice, banana, sugar, suntan emulsion, urine, perfume, burns and scorches, blood.
Blue Stains: water colour, ink, ball point pens ink, dyes.
Green stains: grass, water colours, ink, ballpoint ink, dyes.
Red stains: water colour, ink, lipsticks, nail varnish, hair dyes.
Stains Removing Procedure
Application of spotting chemicals: Spotting chemicals should be applied by means of a small plastic bottle with a long necked nozzle. Every endeavor should be made to keep the area to be spotted as confined as possible.
Effect of Steam
Steam from a steam gun serves to heat the chemicals in order to increase their effectiveness. The steam gun must always be handled with great care as the high steam pressure could damage the fabric, dyes or effects the surface properties, and thermoplastic fibre could be irretrievably altered. A distance of 3-4 inches has to be maintaining between fabric surface and steam gun nozzle. An exceptional can be granted for very hard surface.
Rinsing of stained surface after stain removers
Rinsing off the stain treated spot is very essential, making stain invisible is not sufficient, it can reappear, while doing the pressing or ironing, this spot should be rinsed thoroughly several times so that all the chemicals are removed from the surface.
Formation of Spotting Rings
Always apply the spotting chemical on the outer edge of the stained area and treat the stain. Then rinse the spotted surface several times by forming a ring. Work the edge towards the centre when drying with compressed air, i.e. begin with blowing at the outer zone and gradually shifting liquid towards the centre.Navin Sethi, Key Accounts Manager – Laundry, JohnsonDiversey India Pvt. Ltd