The global business outlook of industrial bio-energy development for the next 15-years has been assessed as very bright with India becoming one of its biggest gainers owing to the nation’s ready availability of huge quantum of MSW, forest residues and the wood process wastes and the Central Government promoting power-harnessing from it.
According to the World Bank, Biomass, making up 10 % of world’s primary energy supply is likely to overtake the crude oil as the most important source of commercial energy by 2030. The bio-refinery industry would be one of the fastest growing sectors in energy field by that year and the advanced bio-fuels may be in a position to meet 25-30 % of global road transport fuels by 2050. The bio-refinery sector has been accorded as extreme focus area by almost all countries of the world including India. Different scientific technologies are being developed globally to convert the organic materials or bio-mass to generate power. There are a number of special forms of bioenergy with variable mechanical, thermal, and chemical characteristics.
The earth’s total terrestrial and marine biomass is estimated at about 600 billion tons. The biomass commodities like wood chips and pellets, peat pellets, bio-oils, and feedstock for ethanol and biodiesel are already traded internationally. Approximately 1.8GJ/tonne of dry biomass can generate 11,000EJ that is 20 times as much as current annual energy consumption of the world. Being a primarily agricultural country, India holds the key to produce bio-energy on a massive scale with the help of food crops, such as grain, sugar cane, oil palm, soybean, and rapeseed, using conventional processes like fermentation and trans-esterification. India also possess massive quantum of Lingo-cellulosic biomass supply through MSW, forest residues and the wood process wastes.