If the Indian government was to provide toilets for all the households that currently lack toilets in India, US$7.9 billion would be required. This fact was revealed in a study carried out by the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Out of this amount, $4.7 billion would be needed for rural areas while $3.2 billion for urban areas.
Strangely, this figure exceeds the estimate given by the National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (2005) for ensuring universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The cost of connecting all urban households lacking underground drainage to sewer systems would cost about $7.7 billion. For rural households, the cost for the same would be about $25 billion.