The subject of solid and liquid waste management has remained neglected in India, mainly on account of lack of priority to the subject. Paucity of funds, lack of technical knowhow, inadequate human resources, and apathy of citizens to maintain cleanliness has all contributed to reasons of inadequacy in service. Institutional weakness and lack of enforcement have added to the problems of waste management and the situation is becoming critical with the passage of time.
Solid and liquid waste management has a direct impact on tourism industry which is being aggressively promoted for economic development. It is the fact that about 0.40kg per capita per day of municipal solid waste is generated in the urban areas. Similarly, about 150 of per capita per day sewage waste is also generated.
for biomethanation and energy generation. Development, operation & maintenance of centralized waste management system to tackle liquid & solid waste generated from institutions and domestic is one of the difficult tasks due to technical, socio–economic and logistic constraints. Though part of domestic and institutional waste is collected and treated in a central treatment unit, major part of the domestic and institutional sewage and solid waste generated is yet to be tackled.
Dumped wastes release methane directly to atmosphere (the most dangerous greenhouse gas.
Biogas technology involves the anaerobic fermentation of organic waste materials, such as animal dung, canteen waste, night soil, agricultural waste, poultry and slaughter waste, market waste in a bio reactor for 5 to 10 days. Generation of biogas is governed by its pH value, temperature, carbon-nitrogen ratio; total solid content, Hydraulic retention time and chemical induces etc. The process of anaerobic fermentation involves a series of biochemical reactions, mainly, an acid genic phase in which the organic waste is converted mainly to acetate and the methanogenic phase in which methane and carbon dioxide are formed. The biogas so generated is a mixture of methane (65 to 70%) carbon dioxide (30-35%) and traces of hydrogen sulphide. This biogas does not contain Sulfur, so it is considered as clean and cheap fuel. Biogas provides better sanitation and hygiene. This gas can be used for thermal application and for generation of electricity.